Students in Grades 3+ can more readily develop an understanding of multiplication when they see it visually. For example, they can picture a marching band arranged in equal rows or chairs set up evenly in an auditorium. In both cases, they are visualizing rows and columns. An arrangement of objects, pictures, or numbers in rows and columns is called an array. Arrays are useful representations of multiplication concepts (among other ideas in mathematics).
This array has 4 rows and 3 columns. It can also be described as a 4 by 3 array. The word "by" is often represented with a multiplication cross: 4 × 3.
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