Proctor and colleagues (2014) examined the effectiveness of the READ 180® literacy intervention program for middle school students with learning disabilities. A total of 76 students in Grades 6-8 from three schools in an urban northeastern U.S. district received 10 weeks of READ 180 instruction. All participants were special education students who received instruction in self-contained classrooms. A series of blocked regression analyses were used to test whether motivation was associated with reading comprehension after controlling for English learner status, time spent in READ 180, and formative assessment scores in comprehension and vocabulary. Results from the analyses showed that the motivation construct of self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of reading comprehension, controlling for time spent in READ 180 and the formative vocabulary and comprehension performance. English learner status did not moderate the effect of self-efficacy on reading comprehension.
Proctor, C. P., Daley, S., Louick, R., Leider, C. M., & Gardner, G. L. (2014). How motivation and engagement predict reading comprehension among native English-speaking and English-learning middle school students with disabilities in a remedial reading curriculum. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 76-83.