The fourth edition of Test of Written Language, Fourth Edition (TOWL-4) is a normreferenced, comprehensive diagnostic test of written expression. It is used to (a) identify students who write poorly and, therefore, need special help, (b) determine students' particular strengths and weaknesses in various writing abilities, (c) document students' progress in special writing programs, and (d) measure writing in research. The test was normed on 2,505 individuals from 18 states whose demographic characteristics approximate those of the U.S. population in 2005. The sample was stratified by age. The TOWL-4 has two forms (i.e., Form A and Form B), each of which contains seven subtests. The subtests represent the conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing. Subtests 1-5 use contrived formats; subtests 6-7 use a spontaneously written story to assess important aspects of language.
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