Bender® Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

  • The Bender-Gestalt II Global Scoring System (GSS) is based on a simplified adaptation of the Qualitative Scoring System. Examiners use the GSS to evaluate the overall representation of each design the examinee produces during the Copy and Recall phases of administration. The GSS consists of a 5-point rating scale that is designed to yield individual scores for each item and a total score for each test. The essence of the scoring system emphasizes the examination of discrepancy between the actual design on the stimulus card and the examinee's drawing.

    Although many systems of analysis are available for the Bender-Gestalt II, an approach that integrates an individual's test scores and test behaviors is advocated. The former includes quantitative test results based on the Global Scoring System, and the latter involves qualitative observations of general test behavior as well as the specifics of reproducing the designs.

    Scores that can be generated by using the Bender-Gestalt II include: Percentile Ranks, Scaled Scores, T Scores, and Confidence Intervals.

    The Bender-Gestalt II Global Scoring System was designed to assess visual-motor integration functioning across a large segment of the lifespan. As such, it can aid in differentiating subtypes of learning, psychological, and neurological problems. The Recall phase adds to the utility of the Bender-Gestalt II by providing a brief assessment of memory. The Recall phase can be used as an indicator of how well the examinee encodes, stores, and retrieves information from memory. Like performance on the Copy phase, performance on the Recall phase can be influenced by motor and perceptual problems.

    The Global Scoring System provides an overall impression of an individual’s performance on the Bender-Gestalt II. Generally, the lower the score, the greater the likelihood that severe pathology (whether it is developmental, physiological, neurological, or psychological) exists.


    Technical Information

    The Bender-Gestalt II was normed on more than 4,000 individuals ranging in age from 4 to 85+ years. The standardization sample is representative of the 2000 U.S. population. The Bender-Gestalt II was co-normed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition.


    Assessment Bulletin Number 1: Innovative Features of the Bender-Gestalt II and Expanded Guidelines for the Use of the Global Scoring System.